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This doesn't work however for single-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission SSB-SC , leading to the characteristic "Donald Duck" sound from such receivers when slightly detuned.

Single sideband is nevertheless used widely in amateur radio and other voice communications both due to its power efficiency and bandwidth efficiency cutting the RF bandwidth in half compared to standard AM.

On the other hand, in medium wave and short wave broadcasting, standard AM with the full carrier allows for reception using inexpensive receivers.

The broadcaster absorbs the extra power cost to greatly increase potential audience. An additional function provided by the carrier in standard AM, but which is lost in either single or double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission, is that it provides an amplitude reference.

In the receiver, the automatic gain control AGC responds to the carrier so that the reproduced audio level stays in a fixed proportion to the original modulation.

On the other hand, with suppressed-carrier transmissions there is no transmitted power during pauses in the modulation, so the AGC must respond to peaks of the transmitted power during peaks in the modulation.

This typically involves a so-called fast attack, slow decay circuit which holds the AGC level for a second or more following such peaks, in between syllables or short pauses in the program.

This is very acceptable for communications radios, where compression of the audio aids intelligibility. However it is absolutely undesired for music or normal broadcast programming, where a faithful reproduction of the original program, including its varying modulation levels, is expected.

A trivial form of AM which can be used for transmitting binary data is on-off keying , the simplest form of amplitude-shift keying , in which ones and zeros are represented by the presence or absence of a carrier.

On-off keying is likewise used by radio amateurs to transmit Morse code where it is known as continuous wave CW operation, even though the transmission is not strictly "continuous.

Although AM was used in a few crude experiments in multiplex telegraph and telephone transmission in the late s, [2] the practical development of amplitude modulation is synonymous with the development between and of " radiotelephone " transmission, that is, the effort to send sound audio by radio waves.

The first radio transmitters, called spark gap transmitters , transmitted information by wireless telegraphy , using different length pulses of carrier wave to spell out text messages in Morse code.

They couldn't transmit audio because the carrier consisted of strings of damped waves , pulses of radio waves that declined to zero, that sounded like a buzz in receivers.

In effect they were already amplitude modulated. His first transmitted words were, "Hello. One, two, three, four. Is it snowing where you are, Mr.

The words were barely intelligible above the background buzz of the spark. Fessenden was a significant figure in the development of AM radio.

He was one of the first researchers to realize, from experiments like the above, that the existing technology for producing radio waves, the spark transmitter, was not usable for amplitude modulation, and that a new kind of transmitter, one that produced sinusoidal continuous waves , was needed.

This was a radical idea at the time, because experts believed the impulsive spark was necessary to produce radio frequency waves, and Fessenden was ridiculed.

He invented and helped develop one of the first continuous wave transmitters - the Alexanderson alternator , with which he made what is considered the first AM public entertainment broadcast on Christmas Eve, He also discovered the principle on which AM is based, heterodyning , and invented one of the first detectors able to rectify and receive AM, the electrolytic detector or "liquid baretter", in Other radio detectors invented for wireless telegraphy, such as the Fleming valve and the crystal detector also proved able to rectify AM signals, so the technological hurdle was generating AM waves; receiving them was not a problem.

The first practical continuous wave AM transmitters were based on either the huge, expensive Alexanderson alternator , developed —, or versions of the Poulsen arc transmitter arc converter , invented in The modifications necessary to transmit AM were clumsy and resulted in very low quality audio.

Modulation was usually accomplished by a carbon microphone inserted directly in the antenna or ground wire; its varying resistance varied the current to the antenna.

The limited power handling ability of the microphone severely limited the power of the first radiotelephones; many of the microphones were water-cooled.

The discovery of the amplifying ability of the Audion vacuum tube , invented in by Lee de Forest , solved these problems. The vacuum tube feedback oscillator , invented in by Edwin Armstrong and Alexander Meissner , was a cheap source of continuous waves and could be easily modulated to make an AM transmitter.

Modulation did not have to be done at the output but could be applied to the signal before the final amplifier tube, so the microphone or other audio source didn't have to handle high power.

Wartime research greatly advanced the art of AM modulation, and after the war the availability of cheap tubes sparked a great increase in the number of radio stations experimenting with AM transmission of news or music.

The vacuum tube was responsible for the rise of AM radio broadcasting around , the first electronic mass entertainment medium.

Amplitude modulation was virtually the only type used for radio broadcasting until FM broadcasting began after World War 2.

John Renshaw Carson in did the first mathematical analysis of amplitude modulation, showing that a signal and carrier frequency combined in a nonlinear device would create two sidebands on either side of the carrier frequency, and passing the modulated signal through another nonlinear device would extract the original baseband signal.

After WW2 it was developed by the military for aircraft communication. Consider a carrier wave sine wave of frequency f c and amplitude A given by:.

Let m t represent the modulation waveform. For this example we shall take the modulation to be simply a sine wave of a frequency f m , a much lower frequency such as an audio frequency than f c :.

In this simple case m is identical to the modulation index , discussed below. Using prosthaphaeresis identities , y t can be shown to be the sum of three sine waves:.

Therefore, the modulated signal has three components: the carrier wave c t which is unchanged, and two pure sine waves known as sidebands with frequencies slightly above and below the carrier frequency f c.

A useful modulation signal m t is usually more complex than a single sine wave, as treated above. However, by the principle of Fourier decomposition , m t can be expressed as the sum of a set of sine waves of various frequencies, amplitudes, and phases.

The collection of the former frequencies above the carrier frequency is known as the upper sideband, and those below constitute the lower sideband.

The modulation m t may be considered to consist of an equal mix of positive and negative frequency components, as shown in the top of Fig.

One can view the sidebands as that modulation m t having simply been shifted in frequency by f c as depicted at the bottom right of Fig. The short-term spectrum of modulation, changing as it would for a human voice for instance, the frequency content horizontal axis may be plotted as a function of time vertical axis , as in Fig.

It can again be seen that as the modulation frequency content varies, an upper sideband is generated according to those frequencies shifted above the carrier frequency, and the same content mirror-imaged in the lower sideband below the carrier frequency.

At all times, the carrier itself remains constant, and of greater power than the total sideband power.

The RF bandwidth of an AM transmission refer to Figure 2, but only considering positive frequencies is twice the bandwidth of the modulating or " baseband " signal, since the upper and lower sidebands around the carrier frequency each have a bandwidth as wide as the highest modulating frequency.

Although the bandwidth of an AM signal is narrower than one using frequency modulation FM , it is twice as wide as single-sideband techniques; it thus may be viewed as spectrally inefficient.

Within a frequency band, only half as many transmissions or "channels" can thus be accommodated. For this reason analog television employs a variant of single-sideband known as vestigial sideband , somewhat of a compromise in terms of bandwidth in order to reduce the required channel spacing.

Another improvement over standard AM is obtained through reduction or suppression of the carrier component of the modulated spectrum. Thus there is a great advantage in efficiency in reducing or totally suppressing the carrier, either in conjunction with elimination of one sideband single-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission or with both sidebands remaining double sideband suppressed carrier.

While these suppressed carrier transmissions are efficient in terms of transmitter power, they require more sophisticated receivers employing synchronous detection and regeneration of the carrier frequency.

For that reason, standard AM continues to be widely used, especially in broadcast transmission, to allow for the use of inexpensive receivers using envelope detection.

Even analog television, with a largely suppressed lower sideband, includes sufficient carrier power for use of envelope detection.

But for communications systems where both transmitters and receivers can be optimized, suppression of both one sideband and the carrier represent a net advantage and are frequently employed.

A technique used widely in broadcast AM transmitters is an application of the Hapburg carrier, first proposed in the s but impractical with the technology then available.

During periods of low modulation the carrier power would be reduced and would return to full power during periods of high modulation levels.

This has the effect of reducing the overall power demand of the transmitter and is most effective on speech type programmes. Various trade names are used for its implementation by the transmitter manufacturers from the late 80's onwards.

The AM modulation index is a measure based on the ratio of the modulation excursions of the RF signal to the level of the unmodulated carrier.

It is thus defined as:. Modulation index is normally expressed as a percentage, and may be displayed on a meter connected to an AM transmitter.

Increasing the modulating signal beyond that point, known as overmodulation , causes a standard AM modulator see below to fail, as the negative excursions of the wave envelope cannot become less than zero, resulting in distortion "clipping" of the received modulation.

Such circuits are sometimes referred to as a vogad. In that case, negative excursions beyond zero entail a reversal of the carrier phase, as shown in the third waveform below.

This cannot be produced using the efficient high-level output stage modulation techniques see below which are widely used especially in high power broadcast transmitters.

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