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Nefertiti Tomb InhaltsverzeichnisInterview vom 3. In: Beste Spielothek in Culm finden Tietze: Amarna. Archäologisch ist das bisher nicht belegt. In den Felsengräbern von Amarna wurde sie zusammen mit Echnaton mehrfach in einer Art abgebildet, dass heute Forscher sogar eine dominierende Mitregentschaft von Nofretete, Restwoche Semenchkarein den späten Regierungsjahren von Echnaton annehmen. In den ersten Regierungsjahren werden die beiden ältesten Töchter Meritaton und Maketaton geboren. FebruarBandNr.
Now scientists have used high-tech radar scans to reveal possible evidence of hidden chambers beyond the tomb's north wall, Nature reports.
The corridor-like space measures two metres high and over 10 metres long. It sits just a few metres from Tut's gold-laden treasury. Dr Ray Johnson, an Egyptologist at the University of Chicago, who wasn't involved in the research, described the discovery as "tremendously exciting".
A new technology called ground-penetrating radar, which uses radar pulses to see through soil and rock, was used to scan around Tut's tomb.
There's no proof yet that what they found really is a hidden chamber — let alone that it contains Nefertiti's tomb — but it offers a tantalising prospect to Egyptologists.
This is not the first time the possibility of extra chambers in Tut's tomb has been explored by scientists.
Several teams, often working with private companies, claim to have found evidence of secret compartments behind the underground structure's walls.
In , Francesco Porcelli, a physicist at the Polytechnic University of Turin in Italy, led a ground-penetrating radar survey which concluded the tomb contained no concealed rooms.
It is not yet known whether the newly found space is linked to King Tut's burial chamber or another nearby tomb. Eldamaty and his team believe the spot is part of the Tut complex because it's positioned perpendicular to the tomb's main axis.
Investigations of secret chambers within other Ancient Egyptian tombs have often found they were simply tunnels used by the grave's builders.
She was the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh and they were also known for a religious revolution as they only worshipped one god, Aten.
Nefertiti became famous following the discovery of an incredibly well-preserved ancient bust of her head. She was made famous by her bust , now in Berlin's Neues Museum.
The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose , and it was found in his workshop. Nefertiti's name, Egyptian Nfr.
In fact, Tey's only connection with her was that she was the "nurse of the great queen" Nefertiti, an unlikely title for a queen's mother.
Nevertheless, this entire proposal is based on speculation and conjecture. It has also been proposed that Nefertiti was Akhenaten's full sister, though this is contradicted by her titles which do not include those usually used by the daughters of a Pharaoh.
Scenes in the tombs of the nobles in Amarna mention the queen's sister who is named Mutbenret previously read as Mutnodjemet. The exact dates when Nefertiti married Akhenaten and became the king's Great Royal Wife are uncertain.
Their six known daughters and estimated years of birth were:  . Nefertiti first appears in scenes in Thebes. In the damaged tomb TT of the royal butler Parennefer , the new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal woman, and this lady is thought to be an early depiction of Nefertiti.
The king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten. In the tomb of the vizier Ramose , Nefertiti is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier.
One of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben hwt-ben-ben , was dedicated to Nefertiti. She is depicted with her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess Meketaten participates as well.
In scenes found on the talatat , Nefertiti appears almost twice as often as her husband. She is shown appearing behind her husband the Pharaoh in offering scenes in the role of the queen supporting her husband, but she is also depicted in scenes that would have normally been the prerogative of the king.
She is shown smiting the enemy, and captive enemies decorate her throne. In the fourth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV decided to move the capital to Akhetaten modern Amarna.
In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten , and Nefertiti was henceforth known as Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti.
The name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten. It changed Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a religion which may have been better described as a monolatry the depiction of a single god as an object for worship or henotheism one god, who is not the only god.
The boundary stelae of years 4 and 5 mark the boundaries of the new city and suggest that the move to the new city of Akhetaten occurred around that time.
The new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the Aten. Nefertiti and her family would have resided in the Great Royal Palace in the centre of the city and possibly at the Northern Palace as well.
Nefertiti and the rest of the royal family feature prominently in the scenes at the palaces and in the tombs of the nobles. Nefertiti's steward during this time was an official named Meryre II.
He would have been in charge of running her household. The people of Kharu the north and Kush the south are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items to Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
In the tomb of Meryre II , Nefertiti's steward, the royal couple is shown seated in a kiosk with their six daughters in attendance.
Two representations of Nefertiti that were excavated by Flinders Petrie appear to show Nefertiti in the middle to later part of Akhenaten's reign 'after the exaggerated style of the early years had relaxed somewhat'.
Another is a small inlay head Petrie Museum Number UC modeled from reddish-brown quartzite that was clearly intended to fit into a larger composition.
Meketaten may have died in year 13 or Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and three princesses are shown mourning her. It dates to year 16 of the king's reign and is also the last dated inscription naming the king.
Many scholars believe Nefertiti had a role elevated from that of Great Royal Wife , and was promoted to co-regent by her husband Pharaoh Akhenaten before his death.
It is also possible that, in a similar fashion to Hatshepsut, Nefertiti disguised herself as a male and assumed the male alter-ego of Smenkhkare ; in this instance she could have elevated her daughter Meritaten to the role of Great Royal Wife.
If Nefertiti did rule Egypt as Pharaoh, it has been theorized that she would have attempted damage control and may have re-instated the Ancient Egyptian religion and the Amun priests, and had Tutankhamun raised in with the traditional gods.
Archaeologist and Egyptologist Dr. Zahi Hawass theorized that Nefertiti returned to Thebes from Amarna to rule as Pharaoh, based on ushabti and other feminine evidence of a female Pharaoh found in Tutankhamun's tomb , as well as evidence of Nefertiti smiting Egypt's enemies which was a duty reserved to kings.
Pre Egyptological theories thought that Nefertiti vanished from the historical record around Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign, with no word of her thereafter.
Conjectured causes included injury, a plague that was sweeping through the city, and a natural cause. This theory was based on the discovery of several ushabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti now located in the Louvre and the Brooklyn Museum.
A previous theory that she fell into disgrace was discredited when deliberate erasures of monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten were shown to refer to Kiya instead.
By the twelfth year of his reign, there is evidence she may have been elevated to the status of co-regent:  equal in status to the pharaoh, as may be depicted on the Coregency Stela.
It is possible that Nefertiti is the ruler named Neferneferuaten. Some theorists believe that Nefertiti was still alive and held influence on the younger royals.
In that year, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun. This is evidence of his return to the official worship of Amun , and abandonment of Amarna to return the capital to Thebes.
In , the discovery of an inscription dated to Year 16, month 3 of Akhet , day 15 of the reign of Akhenaten was announced. This inscription offers incontrovertible evidence that both Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still alive in the 16th year of his [Akhenaten's] reign and, more importantly, that they were still holding the same positions as at the start of their reign.
This makes it necessary to rethink the final years of the Amarna Period. This means that Nefertiti was alive in the second to last year of Akhenaten's reign, and demonstrates that Akhenaten still ruled alone, with his wife by his side.
Therefore, the rule of the female Amarna pharaoh known as Neferneferuaten must be placed between the death of Akhenaten and the accession of Tutankhamun.
This female pharaoh used the epithet 'Effective for her husband' in one of her cartouches,  which means she was either Nefertiti or her daughter Meritaten who was married to king Smenkhkare.
Nefertiti's burial was intended to be made within the Royal Tomb as laid out in the Boundary Stelae. One shabti is known to have been made for her.
In , English archaeologist Nicholas Reeves announced that he had discovered evidence in high resolution scans of Tutankhamun's tomb "indications of two previously unknown doorways, one set within a larger partition wall and both seemingly untouched since antiquity To the north [there] appears to be signaled a continuation of tomb KV62 , and within these uncharted depths an earlier royal interment — that of Nefertiti herself.
A third radar scan has eliminated the possibility that there are any hidden chambers. These two mummies, known as ' The Elder Lady ' and ' The Younger Lady ', were identified as likely candidates of her remains.
More evidence to support this identification was that the mummy's teeth look like that of a to year-old, Nefertiti's most likely age of death.
Also, unfinished busts of Nefertiti appear to resemble the mummy's face, though other suggestions included Ankhesenamun. However, it eventually became apparent that the 'Elder Lady' is in fact Queen Tiye , mother of Akhenaten.
A lock of hair found in a coffinette bearing an inscription naming Queen Tiye proved a near perfect match to the hair of the 'Elder Lady'.
On June 9, , archaeologist Joann Fletcher , a specialist in ancient hair from the University of York in England, announced that Nefertiti's mummy may have been the Younger Lady.
Fletcher suggested that Nefertiti was the Pharaoh Smenkhkare. Some Egyptologists hold to this view though the majority believe Smenkhkare to have been a separate person.
Fletcher led an expedition funded by the Discovery Channel to examine what they believed to have been Nefertiti's mummy. The team claimed that the mummy they examined was damaged in a way suggesting the body had been deliberately desecrated in antiquity.
Mummification techniques, such as the use of embalming fluid and the presence of an intact brain , suggested an eighteenth-dynasty royal mummy. Other elements which the team used to support their theory were the age of the body, the presence of embedded nefer beads, and a wig of a rare style worn by Nefertiti.
They further claimed that the mummy's arm was originally bent in the position reserved for pharaohs, but was later snapped off and replaced with another arm in a normal position.
Most Egyptologists, among them Kent Weeks and Peter Lacovara , generally dismiss Fletcher's claims as unsubstantiated. They say that ancient mummies are almost impossible to identify as a particular person without DNA.
As bodies of Nefertiti's parents or children have never been identified, her conclusive identification is impossible. Any circumstantial evidence, such as hairstyle and arm position, is not reliable enough to pinpoint a single, specific historical person.
The cause of damage to the mummy can only be speculated upon, and the alleged revenge is an unsubstantiated theory.
Bent arms, contrary to Fletcher's claims, were not reserved to pharaohs; this was also used for other members of the royal family.
The wig found near the mummy is of unknown origin, and cannot be conclusively linked to that specific body.
Finally, the 18th dynasty was one of the largest and most prosperous dynasties of ancient Egypt. A female royal mummy could be any of a hundred royal wives or daughters from the 18th dynasty's more than years on the throne.
In addition to that, there was controversy about both the age and sex of the mummy. On June 12, , Egyptian archaeologist Dr. Zahi Hawass , head of Egypt's Supreme Council for Antiquities , also dismissed the claim, citing insufficient evidence.
On August 30, , Reuters further quoted Hawass: "I'm sure that this mummy is not a female", and "By going first to the press with what might be considered a great discovery, Dr Fletcher broke the bond made by York University with the Egyptian authorities.
And by putting out in the popular media what is considered by most scholars to be an unsound theory, Dr Fletcher has broken the rules and therefore, at least until we have reviewed the situation with her university, she must be banned from working in Egypt.
The theory that the damage to the left side of the face was inflicted post-mummification was rejected as undamaged embalming packs were placed over top of the affected area.
One of the two female mummies found in KV21 has been suggested as the body of Nefertiti. DNA analysis did not yield enough data to make a definitive identification but confirmed she was a member of the Eighteenth Dynasty royal line.
The possible identification is based on her association with the mummy tentatively identified as Ankhesenamun.
It is suggested that just as a mother and daughter Tiye and the Younger Lady were found lying together in KV35, the same was true of these mummies.
A document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa which dates to the Amarna period; the so-called "Deeds" of Suppiluliuma I.
The Hittite ruler receives a letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on Karkemish. The letter reads: . My husband has died and I have no son.
They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a husband I am afraid.
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